well that is not that simple
Firstly what you see in user profile is only the beginning of user id, the whole user id is available in url, as
Now about how this id is generated for each user, then it is sha1 hash of app_key and device_id from sdk requests.
And it is mostly available for internal usage.
The way we usually recommend it, is to use plain device_id and use filter in User Profiles for ID property to filter by device_id.
But currently problem is that Android SDK does not support returning this device_id, we are working on new version of the SDK, redesigning it completely, and that is why current old version might be lacking some features like this.
The best workaround is to use custom property providing your internal customer id and then filter by it in user profiles filter, or use dbviewer API to fetch user id to get link directly to specific user profile, depending on your needs.
If you still want to go with device_id, then you will probably need to modify current Android SDK to be able to retrieve it programmatically.